Electricity production from renewable energies is subject to strong fluctuations, especially in the case of solar and wind energy. The mismatch between supply and demand is resolved on the one hand by controlling conventional power plants, on the other hand by energy storage or by shifting peak demand on the demand side. The expansion of renewables also requires more decentralized coordinated units (e.g., in houses or communities) rather than large centralized units.
The entire system of power grid and communication network combined with storage and the continued efficient use of fossil fuels must ensure a reliable and cost-effective energy supply. We develop simulation models for the analysis, design, and control of such systems: on a smaller scale for microgrids (combined producers and consumers trying to remain self-sufficient) and on a larger scale for the main aspects of the energy system of a region or state.