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Colloquium lecture: 12 January 2021, Leo Strobel

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Temporal and Spatial Optimization Potential of Electric Vehicle Charging – An Analysis on
Different System Levels

With the growing adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany, their impact on
the electric power system will reach significant levels. This can be detrimental or
beneficial, depending on the charging behavior. In order to devise appropriate
policy measures, these impacts have to be assessed. In the literature, this has been
done already for multiple combinations of renewable energy expansion and EV fleet
development. However, local differences are often neglected or only depicted in
coarse detail making it impossible to understand the interplay between national
and regional impacts.
This thesis fills this gap by modeling a 10 million EV fleet framed in the context of
Germany in the year 2030 to determine the impacts of uncontrolled and controlled
charging on the national and county level for different scenarios of charging station
availability. Uncontrolled charging is calculated with a simple simulation. The
controlled strategies are implemented with linear and quadratic optimization models,
minimizing the sum of squares of the residual load on their respective level. To
supplement the high spatial resolution, the level of detail is increased in other areas
as well. First, the EV fleet is represented substantially less aggregated than in
comparable studies, with 40 100 individual agents. Additionally, the vehicle fleet is
not separated into size classes but depicted through 20 real-world vehicle models
that together make up 77 % of the German plug-in electric vehicle market.
Furthermore, steps for a more realistic depiction of the consumption are undertaken
by including temperature and speed dependencies.
The results show that uncontrolled charging will increase the peak load by up to
6.6 GW compared to a no EV reference, exceeding the installed capacities of planned
conventional power plants, pumped hydro storages, and a capacity reserve of 2 GW.
These negative effects are also felt on the county level with an average peak increase
of up to 30 %. Controlled charging is proven to be able to reduce peaks at both
levels to essentially zero while only relying on home charging stations. Renewable
integration, on the other hand, improves with every bit of increased flexibility that
is created by larger charging station availability. At the same time, higher renewable
integration comes with the trade-off of very high local residual peaks.

 

Time:10:15 a.m.

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